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Muscle atrophy in critically ill patients: a review of its cause, evaluation, and prevention

Cancer/ Palliative treatment
Author
Nakanishi et al.
Publication Year : 2020

Country : Japan

Journal : The Journal of Medical Investigation: Review

Critically ill patients exhibit prominent muscle atrophy, which occurs rapidly after ICU admission and leads to poor clinical outcomes. The extent of atrophy differs among muscles as follows: upper limb: 0.7%–2.4% per day, lower limb: 1.2%–3.0% per day, and diaphragm 1.1%–10.9% per day. This atrophy is caused by numerous risk factors such as inflammation, immobilization, nutrition, hyperglycemia, medication, and mechanical ventilation. Muscle atrophy should be monitored noninvasively by ultrasound at the bedside. Ultrasound can …
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